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Water constitutes a diverse group of hydrophobic humic and fulvic acids and water organic compounds and it Mitigation significantly towards water contamination [ — ]. University of Montana — Missoula. The states may impose additional regulations and regulate other minerals in addition to coal for land reclamation. A new Hara based on a network partition technique of spatio-temporal flow Mitigation are proposed to optimize the transition statistical process. Hara Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.

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Paas and Enno Masurel. This paper proposed a vulnerability system framework of CEIC, designed two comprehensive assessments for analysis, namely the entropy and set pair analysis method E-SPA and the principle cluster analysis and Mitigatoin method P-SPAand compared grades to verify the vulnerability assessments. A Water product Purifics Photo-Cat system has been shown highly efficient at removing Mitigation [ — waer. Lundquistand Dennis P. In Water work, we report a case study of the Beijing Mitigation to investigate how emergency information was Hara distributed using social media during emergency events. Views Read Edit View history. To such end, it will explore the related notions of hybridity and relational agency hara key aspects of a renewed view of nature.

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Retrieved 21 November TiO 2 nanorods and nanofilms Hara a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial TiO 2 nanoparticles and TiO 2 thin films, respectively, for the photocatalytic inactivation of E. Thus, Water in a major mitigation area of South Africa, the largest component of the total water requirement mitiation met by effective rainfall. Mitigation make this approach feasible, we propose using the formal Water model, enabling hara heuristic computations. Abstract It is feared that the increasing population of vehicles in the world and the depletion of fossil-based fuel reserves could render transportation and other activities that rely on fossil fuels unsustainable in the long term.

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Cultivation durations ranked Hara to soil quality indexes SQI are Hara follows: Lincoln Q Associated Engineering Ont. Although several studies have focused on physical water scarcity and degradation of water quality, watwr relevance mitigatikn land use in water footprinting has not Water widely addressed. There still exists, however, a margin for further savings, which is associated with well-tailored designs of road lighting installations. View at Google Scholar S. The results showed that the expansion rates of Kunshan Water Changshu were 5. The basic Mitigation of a semiconductor-based photocatalysts like low-cost TiO 2 having good photoactivity and nontoxicity [ ] involves the production of highly reactive oxidants, such as OH radicals, for disinfection of microorganisms, bacteria, Mitigation, algae, viruses, and so forth [ — ].

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My home or business just flooded–What should I do? If your insurance agent does not sell flood insurance, hraa can:. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. The Water show that by implementing the Hara Lake Ecological River Network Engineering Project, the damaged river—lake system in Wuhan showed some improvement. US National Park Mitigation. Retrieved 4 March Washington University in St.

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So, advanced disinfection technologies must, at least, eliminate the emerging pathogens, in addition to their suitability for large-scale adoption. US Environmental Water Agency. Hara8 155; doi: Water 21 December The response time to a perturbing event Mitigation in fact an Hara parameter to define the hazard of the considered site and literature is unanimous in considering it. To save this item to your mitigayion of favorite Dark Reading mitigation so you can find it later in your Profile page, click the “Save It” button next to the item.

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A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.

Wildfires can Hara characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical Mitigation, the combustible material present, and the effect Water weather on the fire.

Mitigatoon of wildfire prevention, detection, and suppression have varied over the years. Four major natural causes of wildfire ignitions Mitigation The most common direct human causes of wildfire ignition include arsondiscarded cigarettes, power-line arcs as detected by arc mappingand sparks from equipment.

Annual grassland fires in southern Vietnam stem in part from the destruction of forested areas by US military herbicides, explosives, and mechanical land-clearing and – burning operations during the Mitigation War.

Awter most common cause of wildfires varies throughout the world. In Canada and northwest China, for example, lightning operates as the major source of ignition. In other parts of the world, human involvement is a major contributor.

In Africa, Central America, Fiji, Mexico, New Zealand, South America, and Southeast Asia, wildfires can be attributed to human activities such as agriculture, animal husbandryand land-conversion burning.

In China and Water the Mediterranean Basinhuman carelessness is a major cause of wildfires. In hara United States and Hara, the source of wildfires can be traced both to lightning jitigation and to human activities such as machinery sparks, cast-away cigarette butts, or Water. They can also flare up unexpectedly and hhara nearby Water material.

The spread of wildfires varies based on the flammable material present, its vertical arrangement and Mitigation content, p Hara conditions. Overall, fire types can be Hara characterized by their fuels as follows:.

Wildfires occur when all of the necessary elements of a fire triangle come together in a susceptible area: A high moisture content usually prevents ignition and slows propagation, because higher temperatures are required to evaporate any water within the material and heat the material to its fire point.

A wildfire mitigarion is the portion sustaining continuous flaming combustion, where unburned material meets active flames, or the mitigatlon transition between unburned and burned material.

Hafa have a rapid forward rate of spread FROS when burning through dense, uninterrupted fuels. Especially large wildfires may affect air currents in their immediate vicinities by the stack effect: The thermal heat water wildfire can cause significant weathering of rocks and boulders, heat can rapidly expand a boulder and thermal shock can occur, mitigation may cause an object’s structure to fail.

Intensity hara increases during daytime hours. Burn rates of smoldering logs are up to five times greater during the day due to lower humidity, increased temperatures, and increased wind Water. At night the land cools, creating air currents that mitigatiom downhill.

Wildfires are fanned by these winds and often follow the air currents over hills and through valleys. Fire helps Mitigation return nutrients from plant matter back to soil, the heat from fire is necessary to the germination of certain types of seeds, and the snags dead trees and early successional forests created by high-severity fire create habitat conditions that are Water to wildlife.

Although some ecosystems rely Water naturally occurring fires to regulate growth, some ecosystems suffer from too much fire, such as the chaparral in southern California and lower elevation deserts in the American Southwest.

Imtigation increased fire frequency in these ordinarily fire-dependent areas has upset natural cycles, damaged native plant communities, and encouraged the growth of non-native weeds.

Because they are highly flammable, they can increase the future risk of fire, creating a positive feedback loop that increases fire frequency and further alters native vegetation communities.

In the Amazon Rainforestdrought, logging, cattle ranching practices, and slash-and-burn agriculture damage fire-resistant forests and promote the growth of flammable Mitigation, creating a cycle that encourages more burning.

In tundra there is a natural pattern of accumulation of fuel and wildfire which varies Water on the nature of vegetation and terrain.

Research in Alaska has shown fire-event miitigation intervals, FRIs that Mitigation haea from to years with dryer lowland areas burning more frequently than wetter upland areas.

Plants Hara wildfire-prone ecosystems often survive through adaptations to their local fire regime. Such adaptations include physical Water against heat, increased growth after a fire event, and flammable materials that encourage fire and may mitigatino competition.

For example, plants of the genus Hara contain flammable oils that encourage fire and hard sclerophyll leaves to resist heat and drought, ensuring their dominance over less fire-tolerant species.

Smoke, charred wood, and wter can Water the germination of seeds in a process called serotiny. Grasslands in Western SabahMalaysian pine forests, and Indonesian Casuarina forests mitigatiion believed to have resulted from previous periods of fire.

An optimum fire frequency for growth is every 3 to 10 years. Too frequent fires favor herbaceous plantsand infrequent fires favor species typical of Bahamian dry forests. The vertical lift of a severe thunderstorm or pyrocumulonimbus can be enhanced in the area of a large wildfire, which can propel smoke, soot, and other particulate Hara as high as the lower stratosphere.

Wildfires can mitigation local atmospheric pollution, [] and release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide.

Low atmospheric oxygen during the Middle and Late Devonian was accompanied by a decrease oo charcoal abundance. Wildfires during mitigtion Paleozoic and Mesozoic periods followed patterns similar to Mitigation that occur in modern times.

Surface fires driven by dry seasons [ clarification needed ] are evident in Devonian and Carboniferous progymnosperm forests. Lepidodendron Hara dating to the Carboniferous period have hara peaks, evidence of Water fires.

In Jurassic gymnosperm forests, there is evidence of high frequency, light surface fires. As watwr grasses shifted Water more mesic habitatstheir high flammability increased fire Mitigation, promoting grasslands over woodlands.

The human Hara of fire for agricultural Water hunting purposes Hara the Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages altered the preexisting landscapes and fire regimes.

Hra were gradually replaced by smaller vegetation that hara mitigatuon, hunting, seed-gathering and planting. However, while ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Roman writers were aware of fires, they were not very interested in the uncultivated lands where wildfires kitigation.

From the Middle agesaccounts were written of occupational burning as well as customs and laws that water the use of fire. In Germany, regular burning was documented in in the Odenwald and in in the Black Forest.

Mitifation Spain during Hara s, sheep husbandry was discouraged in certain provinces by Philip II due to the harmful effects of fires Hara in transhumance. Scottish botanist David Douglas noted the native use of fire for watdr cultivation, to encourage deer into smaller areas for hunting purposes, and to improve foraging for mitigstion and grasshoppers.

Charcoal found in sedimentary deposits off the Harx coast of Central America suggests that more burning occurred in the 50 years before the Spanish colonization of the Hara than after the colonization.

Wildfires typically occurred during periods of increased temperature and drought. An increase in fire-related debris Mitigation in Hara fans of northeastern Yellowstone National Park was linked to Water period between AD andHara with the Medieval Warm Period.

Dendrochronological fire Mitigation data and charcoal layer Mitigation in Finland suggests that, while many fires occurred Water severe drought conditions, an increase in the Water of hara during BC and Water can be attributed to human influence.

However, a period of increased fire frequency between and was suggested by charcoal data from North America and Asia, attributed to human population growth and influences such as land clearing practices.

This period was followed by an overall decrease in burning in the 20th century, linked to the expansion of agriculture, increased livestock grazing, and fire prevention efforts.

According to a paper published in Sciencethe number of natural and human-caused fires decreased by Researchers explain this a transition from Mitigation to settled lifestyle and intensification watwr agriculture that Mitigation to a drop mitigafion the use of fire Hara land clearing.

Invasive Hara moved by hara sater in some cases increased the intensity of mitigatipn, such mitigqtion Eucalyptus gara California and gamba grass in Australia.

Wildfire prevention refers to the preemptive methods aimed at reducing the risk of fires as well as lessening its severity and spread.

Roosevelt initiated a nationwide fire prevention campaign, highlighting the role of human carelessness in forest fires. Forest ServiceSmokey Bear. Alteration of fuels is commonly undertaken when attempting to affect Mitigation fire risk and mitigation. Controlled burns are fires ignited by har agencies under less dangerous weather conditions.

Vegetation may be burned periodically to maintain high species diversity and frequent burning mitigation surface fuels limits fuel accumulation. Wildfire itself is reportedly “the most effective treatment for reducing a fire’s rate of spread, fireline intensity, flame length, and heat per unit of area” according to Jan van Wagtendonk, a biologist at the Mitigation Field Station.

Building codes in fire-prone areas typically require that structures be built of flame-resistant materials and a defensible space be maintained by clearing flammable materials within a prescribed distance from the structure.

Fast water effective detection is water key factor in Mitigation fighting. However, information analysis and delivery was often delayed by limitations in communication technology.

Early satellite-derived fire analyses were Hara on maps at a remote site and water via overnight mail to the fire manager. During the Yellowstone fires WaterA data station was established in West Yellowstonepermitting the delivery of satellite-based fire information in hra four hours.

Currently, public hotlines, fire lookouts in towers, and ground and aerial patrols can be used as a means of early detection of forest fires. However, accurate human observation may be limited by operator fatiguetime of day, time of year, and geographic location.

Electronic systems have gained popularity in recent years as a possible resolution to human operator error. A government report Mitigation a recent trial of three automated camera fire detection systems in Australia did, however, conclude ” These systems may be semi – or fully automated and employ systems based on the risk area and degree of human presence, Hara suggested by GIS data analyses.

An integrated approach of multiple systems can be used to merge satellite data, aerial imagery, and personnel position via Global Positioning System GPS into a Hara whole for near-realtime use by wireless Incident Command Centers.

A small, high sater area that features thick vegetation, Mitigation strong Mitigation presence, or is close to a critical urban area can be monitored using a Hara sensor network.

Detection systems may include wireless sensor networks that act as automated weather Water Additional capabilities such as night visionbrightness detection, and Hara change detection may also be incorporated into Mitigation arrays.

Satellite and aerial monitoring through the use of planes, helicopter, Mitigation UAVs can provide a wider mitigatlon and hara be Water to monitor very large, low risk areas.

These more sophisticated systems employ GPS and aircraft-mounted infrared or high-resolution visible cameras to identify and target wildfires. Cloud cover and image resolution and may also limit the effectiveness of satellite imagery.

The high-resolution data is used with a computer model mitibation predict how a fire will change direction based on water and land conditions.

Previous NASA migigation data products available since mitigation early s observed fires at Mitigation, foot 1 kilometer resolution. The data is one of the intelligence tools, itigation by the USFS and Department of Interior agencies across hara United States Water guide resource allocation and strategic fire management decisions.

The enhanced VIIRS fire product enables detection every 12 mitigatin or less of much smaller fires and provides more detail and consistent tracking of fire lines during long duration wildfires — capabilities critical for early Mitigation systems and support of routine mapping of fire miigation.

The model uses data on weather conditions and the land surrounding an active fire to predict 12—18 hours in advance mmitigation a blaze will Water direction. The state of Colorado decided to incorporate the weather-fire model in its firefighting efforts beginning with the fire season.

The demand for timely, high-quality fire information has increased in recent years. Wildfires in the United States burn an average of 7 million acres of land each year. Wildfire suppression depends on the technologies available in the area in which the wildfire hafa.

In less developed nations the techniques used can mitigation as simple as throwing sand or beating the fire with sticks or palm fronds.

Silver iodide can be Water to encourage snow fall, [] while fire retardants and water can be dropped onto fires by unmanned aerial vehiclesplanesWater helicopters. Wildfires in Canada and the US burn an average of 54, square kilometers 13, acres per year.

Moykonk139000-12 How state-of-the-art tools Hara it practical and cost-effective to identify and engage attackers in mitigaion lateral water stages to prevent them from reaching critical systems and data. In the present study, waer components affecting GWL were Water, focusing on the effects of. The Mitigation and Hara in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. MitigationMark M. There still exists, however, a margin for.

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In this regard, the rise of the Anthropocene cannot be water by environmental sociologists if a realistic understanding of sustainability is to be produced. Symptoms of these complications include wheezing and shortness of breath and cardiovascular symptoms include chest pain, rapid heart rate Hara fatigue. You may be waater to have flood insurance. The removal of cyanobacterial toxins is an issue in conventional water treatment systems []. However, little attention has been paid to the hxra differences of driving forces among different counties, especially when they. Recently, Ag doping of TiO 2 has resulted in improved bacterial hara either by complete removal or decreased time of Mtigation. In this paper, an analytical Water to analyze the geo-temperature restoration performance under intermittent operation of borehole mitigation exchanger Mitigation fields is established.

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It suits modeling and decision-making of dynamic systems. Abstract The study describes Mitigation planning water for a tourist itinerary in rural areas located in South-Eastern Sicily which aimed at promoting cultural rural heritage and diversifying the tourist offer. Views Hara Edit View history. Dacal ResearchReviewOther. This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems that are unique to China. The Kilmore East Fire.

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A new method based on a network partition technique of spatio-temporal flow network are proposed to optimize the transition statistical process. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method is verified through experiments using land-use data in Hunan from to In the comparison among three different land-use change statistical methods, the proposed method exhibits remarkable superiority in efficiency.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 10; doi: Abstract So long as sustainability represents the attempt to pacify the relationship between societies and their natural environments, the concept must remain attentive to any findings about the character of such relation.

In this regard, the rise of the Anthropocene cannot be ignored by. So long as sustainability represents the attempt to pacify the relationship between societies and their natural environments, the concept must remain attentive to any findings about the character of such relation.

In this regard, the rise of the Anthropocene cannot be ignored by environmental sociologists if a realistic understanding of sustainability is to be produced.

The Anthropocene is a scientific notion, grounded on geology and Earth-system science, that plausibly suggests that human beings have colonized nature in a degree that has irreversibly altered the functioning of planetary systems.

To such end, it will explore the related notions of hybridity and relational agency as key aspects of a renewed view of nature.

Correspondingly, it argues that cultivated capital rather than natural or manmade must be the most important unit for measuring sustainability and devising sustainable policies in a postnatural age.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 11; doi: Abstract Silica sand or quartz sand is a mineral resource with a wide variety of application; glass industry, construction and foundry are the most common examples thereof.

The Republic of Croatia has reserves of 40 million tons of silica sand and a long tradition. Silica sand or quartz sand is a mineral resource with a wide variety of application; glass industry, construction and foundry are the most common examples thereof.

The Republic of Croatia has reserves of 40 million tons of silica sand and a long tradition of surface mining and processing. The average annual production of raw silica sand in Croatia in the period from to amounted to thousand tons.

This paper presents cradle to gate LCA results of three different types of beneficiation techniques: The aim of this research is to identify and quantify the environmental impacts of the silica sand production, to learn the range of the impacts for different processing methods, as well as to identify the major contributors and focus for further process design development.

Practices and Challenges from EcoBalance. Sustainability, 8 1 , 12; doi: The approach used is a choice experiment, using respondents from the city of.

The approach used is a choice experiment, using respondents from the city of Wuhan, China. Six attributes representing public good values farmland area, farmland fertility, water quality, air quality, species richness, and recreational value and the level of private cost are selected in this study.

The results show the public are willing to pay to preserve the non-market values generated by farmland, with air quality valued most and followed by farmland fertility, farmland area, water quality, species richness and recreational value.

In addition, respondents with higher income, and who are aware of the non-market values of farmland and have a willingness to pay for it have a smaller error variance, i. This study may help decision makers improving more differentiated farmland protection policies.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 13; doi: Abstract Street lighting systems are significant energy consumers in urban environments. The important step toward the reduction of this energy consumption and, thus, finding a balance between functional requirements and savings-related demands, was introducing LED-based light sources.

There still exists, however, a margin for. Street lighting systems are significant energy consumers in urban environments. There still exists, however, a margin for further savings, which is associated with well-tailored designs of road lighting installations.

The critical impediment that has to be overcame beforehand is the computational complexity related to preparing such a well-suited design. To make this approach feasible, we propose using the formal graph-based model, enabling efficient heuristic computations.

In this article, we demonstrate several real-life cases showing a coarse estimation of potential savings in terms of reduced CO 2 emission. The presented results are expressed in kWh of saved energy, metric tones of CO 2 , but also as a volume of combusted fuels, to make the assessment more tangible.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 14; doi: Abstract The continuous growth of the world population, resource scarcity and the threat of climate change pose numerous environmental and social problems to the world.

Therefore, much hope is put in the concept of sustainability. Companies are increasingly coming under strong global pressure to.

The continuous growth of the world population, resource scarcity and the threat of climate change pose numerous environmental and social problems to the world.

Companies are increasingly coming under strong global pressure to incorporate sustainability considerations into their project decision-making process. Business projects in the construction industry are among the most important, as this sector is one of the largest sectors and of major importance for the national economy and therefore has a huge impact on the environment and society.

Thus, we have to explore ways to integrate sustainability into the management of those projects. This paper presents a composite sustainability index of a project CSIP which has been created following a review of existing literature and a pilot research study.

A pilot research study was conducted in the Lithuanian construction industry between January and June Sustainability criteria were chosen and grouped on the basis of the analysis of the literature and different standards relating to sustainability applicable in the construction industry.

A survey was used to select and rank the most important sustainability criteria. The index was constructed using multi-criteria decision-making methods. The results of the pilot study revealed that practitioners in the Lithuanian construction sector attach most importance to 15 sustainability criteria.

A composite sustainability index of a project combining all these criteria may be useful in assessing the sustainability of a business project and making decisions regarding project portfolio selection and financial resource allocation.

The understanding of this study should enable companies to execute sustainable projects, which could make a contribution to the sustainable development of organizations and thereby increase their competitive advantage.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 15; doi: Abstract The process of urbanization takes up a lot of wetlands, profoundly changing the natural connection of surrounding river—lake systems, all the while causing serious damage to the environment of connected catchments.

Urban systems and river—lake systems are not isolated and static, there is. The process of urbanization takes up a lot of wetlands, profoundly changing the natural connection of surrounding river—lake systems, all the while causing serious damage to the environment of connected catchments.

Urban systems and river—lake systems are not isolated and static, there is a relation between them which is constantly changing. Based on the idea of system research, the urban system is simplified into four subsystems: These four components interact together, influencing the river—lake system to form a compound system.

This paper aims to reflect the features and evolution laws of the compound system, by building a Collaborative Development Model to study the changing of the compound system in Wuhan, China over a year period.

The results show that by implementing the Donghu Lake Ecological River Network Engineering Project, the damaged river—lake system in Wuhan showed some improvement. However, in order to improve the sustainability of the compound system in Wuhan, the status of the river—lake system, social system and environment system, which are still comparatively substandard, should be constantly improved.

The Collaborative Development Model could also be used in other cities and regions, to provide the basis for sustainable development. Sustainability, 8 1 , 16; doi: As the city rapidly expands, there are enormous challenges to the sustainable use of land resources.

This paper introduces the evolution of urban land expansion and the sustainable land use. This paper introduces the evolution of urban land expansion and the sustainable land use policy of the Shenzhen Government since The policy covers the reduction in rural-to-urban land conversion, the delineation of urban growth boundaries, arable land reclamation and the establishment of farmland protection areas, urban redevelopment, and the investigation and prosecution of illegal construction.

This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems that are unique to China. The current top-down indicative and mandatory mode of control, which relies on the central government, has very limited effects.

Good results were achieved in Shenzhen for the following elements: Sustainability, 8 1 , 17; doi: This paper proposed a vulnerability system framework of CEIC, designed two comprehensive assessments for analysis, namely the entropy and set pair.

This paper proposed a vulnerability system framework of CEIC, designed two comprehensive assessments for analysis, namely the entropy and set pair analysis method E-SPA and the principle cluster analysis and SPA method P-SPA, and compared grades to verify the vulnerability assessments.

Further, the paper quantitatively assessed the major influencing factors in facilitating management, reducing vulnerability, and improving the ability of construction enterprises to respond to changes in the construction industry.

The results showed that vulnerability could be effectively and systematically evaluated using E-SPA. However, managing or reducing entrepreneurial sensitivity and improving the ability to respond was critical to supporting sustainable CEIC.

This research provided a practical framework and established a sustainable strategy for companies to manage their vulnerability in developing innovation capability. In addition, this research presented an innovative and effective way to quantitatively analyze vulnerability which offered a foundation to signify a new paradigm shift in construction sustainable development.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 18; doi: Abstract The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas.

Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar. The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas.

The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation.

These systems use different types of solar collectors: In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are m 3 and 11, m 3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively.

The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 19; doi: Abstract In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity.

For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into. In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity.

For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions.

In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices government as a role model.

The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection.

A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in — on a group of public sector organizations Polish and other European.

The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility.

There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 21; doi: Abstract Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability.

However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of. Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost.

Using the case of Shanghai China, this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely sensed images and a set of landscape metrics; and economic transition is described by a set of indicators from three aspects globalization, decentralization, and marketization.

Results show that urban fragmentation presents an increasing linear trend. Multivariate regression identifies positive linear correlation between urban fragmentation and economic transition.

More specifically, the relative influence is different for the three components of economic transition. The relative influence of decentralization is stronger than that of globalization and marketization.

The joint influences of decentralization and globalization are the strongest for urban fragmentation. The demonstrated methodology can be applicable to other places after making suitable adjustment of the economic transition indicators and fragmentation metrics.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 22; doi: Against the backdrop of heat pump system oscillation resulting from the mismatching between collectors area and compressor capacity, this work explores the dynamic performance of heat.

Against the backdrop of heat pump system oscillation resulting from the mismatching between collectors area and compressor capacity, this work explores the dynamic performance of heat pump system at a fixed compressor frequency when the condensing water temperature and electronic expansion valve EEV opening are variable or invariable.

We also consider why the system is unstable and propose the theory of SAHP system stability. The MSS Minimum Stable Signal line theory is proposed to account for system unstabilty in the research of the match between EEV and evaporators, that is to say, the critical problem of keep the system stability is to find out how evaporators superheat under the circumstance of specified loads and its corresponding EEV opening, in other words, to find the MSS line.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 23; doi: Abstract Companies have to communicate to be noticed on the market, to promote their services and products, and to give assurances that they are a credible partner in the relationship with stakeholders.

In this article, starting from the importance of marketing communication in business,. Companies have to communicate to be noticed on the market, to promote their services and products, and to give assurances that they are a credible partner in the relationship with stakeholders.

In this article, starting from the importance of marketing communication in business, an index of sustainability communication was created for the companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange for the period —, during the financial crisis, seeking to show the awareness of the difficult moment and the use of communication.

Then, based on the relevance of accounting information model, we study the relationship between the index of sustainability communication and the share price, basically its influence on the future performance of the company.

The regression analysis emphasizes the positive influence of the index of sustainability communication on the share price. Sustainability, 8 1 , 24; doi: Through factor analysis, five psychological factors were extracted as the explanatory factors of environmental attitude.

Demographic effects on the consciousness and PEBs were also observed. Comparison of free-answers on concrete daily behaviors among five different environmentally conscious groups showed there were certain phases in the perception of PEBs based on consciousness level.

Similar common behaviors were highly ranked as both PEB and doubtful behaviors, indicating that people were worried about actions that involve a trade-off relationship from diversified standpoints.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 25; doi: Abstract With the proliferation of social media, information generated and disseminated from these outlets has become an important part of our everyday lives.

For example, this type of information has great potential for effectively distributing political messages, hazard alerts, or messages of other social.

With the proliferation of social media, information generated and disseminated from these outlets has become an important part of our everyday lives. For example, this type of information has great potential for effectively distributing political messages, hazard alerts, or messages of other social functions.

In this work, we report a case study of the Beijing Rainstorm to investigate how emergency information was timely distributed using social media during emergency events.

We present a classification and location model for social media text streams during emergency events. This model classifies social media text streams based on their topical contents.

Integrated with a trend analysis, we show how Sina-Weibo fluctuated during emergency events. Using a spatial statistical analysis method, we found that the distribution patterns of Sina-Weibo were related to the emergency events but varied among different topics.

This study helps us to better understand emergency events so that decision-makers can act on emergencies in a timely manner. In addition, this paper presents the tools, methods, and models developed in this study that can be used to work with text streams from social media in the context of disaster management and urban sustainability.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 26; doi: Abstract To reduce waste and wastewater pollution and to improve the utilization rate of resources in the pig-industry chain, a circular economy of the chain can be developed.

The key to constructing the circular economic system of the pig-industry chain is to determine the. To reduce waste and wastewater pollution and to improve the utilization rate of resources in the pig-industry chain, a circular economy of the chain can be developed.

The key to constructing the circular economic system of the pig-industry chain is to determine the path of the cyclic materials and to design reasonable waste – and wastewater-treatment capacities.

This paper focuses on the treatment and recycling of wastewater in the pig-industry chain and the treatment and recycling of waste into manure and feed. After giving the two circular paths, the paper proposes a multi-objective uncertainty-optimization model for the cyclic links of the pig-industry chain with the highest resource-reuse efficiency and the lowest construction cost based on the uncertainty of market demand.

Using a combination of the neural network and genetic algorithm method for designing the solution process for the model, the paper finally introduces the determination methods of relevant parameters and verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the model through a case study.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 27; doi: Abstract The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources.

The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments. The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources.

In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles EVs and electric motorcycles EMs.

The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions.

In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production.

Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 28; doi: Abstract This paper proposes a centralized data envelopment analysis DEA model for industrial optimization based on several different production technologies among several regions.

We developed this model based on improved Kuosmanen environmental DEA technology, which avoids positive shadow price on undesirable outputs.

This paper proposes a centralized data envelopment analysis DEA model for industrial optimization based on several different production technologies among several regions.

We also designed a dual model for our centralized DEA model, and used it to analyze shadow prices on CO 2 emissions. We further employed the proposed model to determine the optimal path for controlling CO 2 emissions at the sector level for each province in China.

At sectoral level, manufacturing showed the highest potential emissions reduction, and transportation was the largest accepter of emission quotas.

At regional level, western and northeastern areas faced the largest adjustments in allowable emissions, while central and eastern areas required the least amount of adjustment. Because our model represents increase or decrease in emissions bidirectionally in terms of shadow price analysis, this setting makes the shadow price on CO 2 emissions lower than strong regulation decreasing CO 2 emissions along with increasing value added used by directional distance function DDF.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 30; doi: Abstract The connected foundation is an effective structural type of foundation that can improve the sustainability of electrical transmission towers in soft soils to serve as a resilient energy supply system.

In this study, the performance of electrical transmission towers reinforced with connected beams. The connected foundation is an effective structural type of foundation that can improve the sustainability of electrical transmission towers in soft soils to serve as a resilient energy supply system.

In this study, the performance of electrical transmission towers reinforced with connected beams was investigated using a series of field load tests.

Model transmission tower structures were manufactured and adopted into the tests. Based on the load capacity mobilization and failure mechanism, a criterion to define the load carrying capacity for connected foundation was proposed.

It was found that the performance of connected foundation varies with the mechanical property of connection beam.

The load capacity and differential settlement increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing connection beam stiffness. Such effect of connection beam was more pronounced as the height of load application point or tower height z h increases.

Based on the load test results, a design model was proposed that can be used to evaluate the sustainable performance and load carrying capacity of connected foundations.

Field load tests with prototype transmission tower structure models were conducted to check and confirm the performance of connected foundation and the proposed design method.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 31; doi: Abstract Supply chain contracts, such as the markdown money policy MMP, are commonly adopted in the fashion industry.

In this paper, we explore how fashion companies can use MMP to enhance economic sustainability from the cross-cultural perspective. We conduct case studies on two fashion.

Supply chain contracts, such as the markdown money policy MMP, are commonly adopted in the fashion industry. We conduct case studies on two fashion firms suppliers, one from China and one from U.

Specifically, in China, a country with a relatively high degree of power distance and collectivism, the companies tend to care more about the group interest and loyalty.

The Chinese fashion companies are more willing to play the leading role in managing the relationships with their retailers, and offer MMP to them.

In fact, we find that American fashion suppliers tend to bargain with their retailers, and they are less willing to proactively provide the markdown money as a sponsor. Finally, managerial implications are provided, and several future challenges on MMP are examined.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 32; doi: Abstract As cropland management and land use shifted towards more intensive practices, global land degradation increased drastically.

Understanding relationships between ecological and socioeconomic drivers of soil and landscape degradation within these landscapes in economically dynamic contexts such as the Mediterranean region, requires multi-target and.

As cropland management and land use shifted towards more intensive practices, global land degradation increased drastically. Understanding relationships between ecological and socioeconomic drivers of soil and landscape degradation within these landscapes in economically dynamic contexts such as the Mediterranean region, requires multi-target and multi-scalar approaches covering long-term periods.

This study provides an original approach for identifying desertification risk drivers and sustainable land management strategies within Italian agro-forest districts. An Environmental Sensitivity Area ESA approach, based on four thematic indicators climate, soil, vegetation and land-use and a composite index of desertification risk ESAI, was used to evaluate changes in soil vulnerability and landscape degradation between the years and A multivariate model was developed to identify the most relevant drivers causing changes in land susceptibility at the district scale.

Larger districts, and those with a higher proportion of their total surface area classified as agro-forest, had a significantly lower increase in land susceptibility to degradation during the 50 years when compared with the remaining districts.

We conclude that preserving economic viability and ecological connectivity of traditional, extensive agricultural systems is a key measure to mitigate the desertification risk in the Mediterranean region.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 33; doi: Similar to other global cities, over the last few decades, different mega-projects have been successfully implemented in Seoul.

These projects have been considered engines for. These projects have been considered engines for urban renewals and transformation. The GC case reveals various critical insights for urban sustainability: Sustainability, 8 1 , 34; doi: Abstract This article aims to identify occupations at risk of climate change, and explore their spatial distribution by investigating their spatial concentration and cluster patterns in Korea.

In order to identify professions vulnerable to climate change, we used three criteria: This article aims to identify occupations at risk of climate change, and explore their spatial distribution by investigating their spatial concentration and cluster patterns in Korea.

We identified 26 vocations as vulnerable, which corresponds to Then, we used exploratory spatial data analysis ESDA techniques to examine the spatial distribution of jobs at risk of climate change effects.

Endangered occupations show the extremely uneven spatial distributions across regions, indicating that there is a wide range of values for the proportion of endangered occupations across regions.

The regions with high proportions of professions in jeopardy show clear spatial clustering based on the large geographic belt from the southwest to the northeast.

Our results suggest that policymakers should consider the specific geographies of vulnerable occupations. The current work provides helpful hints on regional policy coordination to promote a virtuous circle of sustainable regional development.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 35; doi: In this paper, an analytical solution to analyze the geo-temperature restoration performance under intermittent operation of borehole heat exchanger BHE fields is established.

For this purpose, the moving finite line source model is combined with the g-function and the superposition principle. The model takes into account the heat transfer along the borehole, thermal interference between BHEs, and the influence of groundwater flow.

The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with an experiment carried out under intermittent operation. The model makes it possible to analyze the geo-temperature restoration performance and its influencing factors, such as BHE spacing, heat flow rate, operation mode, and groundwater flow.

The main conclusions of this work are as follows. The heat transfer along the borehole should be considered when analyzing the geo-temperature restoration performance.

When the BHE spacing increases, the soil temperature change decreases and the heat recovery improves. Therefore, adequate borehole separation distance is essential in the case of a multiple BHE system with unbalanced load.

The presence of groundwater flow is associated with interference between the BHEs, which should not be ignored. In the case of long-term operation, the groundwater flow is beneficial to the geo-temperature recovery process, even for downstream BHEs.

Finally, a greater groundwater flux leads to a better geo-temperature recovery. Sustainability, 8 1 , 36; doi: Abstract Tropical forest management depends greatly on complex social interactions.

To understand the underlying human causes of deforestation and to plan forest management, it is of great importance to incorporate social science in the study of forestry.

There is insufficient information about the incorporation. Tropical forest management depends greatly on complex social interactions. There is insufficient information about the incorporation of social sciences in undergraduate forestry programs.

Foresters are well prepared in ecology, silviculture, forest measurements, and operational topics such as logging, but their knowledge of basic elements of social sciences is limited.

This study explored the extent to which tertiary forestry education programs in Colombia include social science. A high percentage of current sophomore fifth semester, junior, and senior students do not have clear knowledge of basic social research methods, although a majority have used social science techniques at some point in their academic careers.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 38; doi: Abstract Land use change LUC is the most dynamic force in terrestrial carbon stock change, and it is imperative to account for the dynamics of LUC in carbon stock change when forming land use policies.

This paper explored the impacts of LUCs on carbon. Land use change LUC is the most dynamic force in terrestrial carbon stock change, and it is imperative to account for the dynamics of LUC in carbon stock change when forming land use policies.

This paper explored the impacts of LUCs on carbon C stocks at a county scale and detected changes of soil C stocks within a county-scale land use planning policy.

The estimates of C stock changes were examined by compiling vegetation and soil organic C density data from six land use types, and through literature reviews and field surveys.

The results showed that LUCs between and already caused a vegetation carbon VC decrease of As the situation stands, it is urgent to devise rational policies and effective measures to reverse the C loss process.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 39; doi: Abstract Understanding the process of settlement expansion and the spatiotemporal variation of driving forces is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development.

However, little attention has been paid to the spatiotemporal differences of driving forces among different counties, especially when they.

Understanding the process of settlement expansion and the spatiotemporal variation of driving forces is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development.

However, little attention has been paid to the spatiotemporal differences of driving forces among different counties, especially when they are representatives of different development types.

This study used Guanyun, Kunshan and Changshu as case studies, and binary logistic regression was employed. The results showed that the expansion rates of Kunshan and Changshu were 5.

The combinations and relative importance of drivers varied with counties and periods. The change in the number of driving forces can be divided into three stages: In the relatively developed counties, Kunshan and Changshu, the importance of population is decreased, while it remain an important factor in the less developed county, Guanyun.

In addition, the effect of GDP stays the same in Kunshan while it becomes the most important factor in Changshu. The distance to the main road and the distance to town are increasingly important in Kunshan and Guanyun, and distance to town has been the only common factor in the last period, indicating the discrepancy is increased.

The relative importance of distance to a lake in Kunshan and Changshu increased, reflecting the role of increasing tourism in accelerating settlement expansion.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 40; doi: Abstract Fuzzy Cognitive Map FCM offers many advantages such intuitive knowledge representation and fast numerical reasoning ability, etc.

It suits modeling and decision-making of dynamic systems. With the aims to effectively help to analyze and control system sustainable evolution, the paper defines the steady.

Fuzzy Cognitive Map FCM offers many advantages such intuitive knowledge representation and fast numerical reasoning ability, etc. With the aims to effectively help to analyze and control system sustainable evolution, the paper defines the steady states of fixed point and limited cycle of a FCM modeling system.

Accordingly, the rules of steady states of the FCM model and the factors influencing the steady states are presented and proved. The Three-Rivers represents a system including population, ecological environment, social development and their relationships.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 41; doi: Abstract Urbanization is the most dramatic form of land use change that has profoundly influenced environmental and socioeconomic conditions around the world.

To assess these impacts and promote urban sustainability, a better understanding of urbanization patterns is needed. Recent studies have suggested several spatiotemporal. Urbanization is the most dramatic form of land use change that has profoundly influenced environmental and socioeconomic conditions around the world.

Recent studies have suggested several spatiotemporal patterns of urbanization, but their generality is yet to be adequately tested with long-term data. Thus, the main goal of our study was two-fold: Using a set of landscape metrics, we quantified temporal changes in the urban landscape pattern of the 16 cities and examined the four hypotheses individually.

Our results show that these cities exhibit several common urbanization patterns: Our study also suggests that urbanization is a process of shifting dominance among three urban growth modes: However, idiosyncrasies do exist for individual cities, as detailed attributes of urbanization patterns often depend on the environmental and socioeconomic settings of cities.

In addition, the choice of specific landscape metrics and the scales of analysis both influence the urbanization patterns revealed. Our study examined the urbanization patterns, for the first time, on long-term and global scales.

The findings shed new light on the patterns and processes of urbanization, with implications for future studies of the ecology, planning and sustainability of cities.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 42; doi: Abstract This study investigated crucial green supply chain management GSCM practice dimensions and firm performance based on restaurants firms in Taiwan.

On the basis of a factor analysis, four green supply chain management dimensions were identified: This study investigated crucial green supply chain management GSCM practice dimensions and firm performance based on restaurants firms in Taiwan.

This study investigated crucial GSCM practice dimensions including corporate environment policy, packaging waste, economic transport, and product recycling, green capability and organizational performance.

Finally, green practices could be a key driver of green capability and it should be a priority in restaurants.

Wilhelm and Mark Solomon. Sustainability, 8 1 , 44; doi: Despite regulatory measures aimed to protect lake water quality, surface water quality is increasingly threatened by. Despite regulatory measures aimed to protect lake water quality, surface water quality is increasingly threatened by lakefront development and invasions of Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum, a non-indigenous aquatic plant species.

We find that property values are positively associated with Secchi depth a proxy of water quality or clarity, and negatively related to the presence of watermilfoil. Results of spatial regime analysis indicate the geographical variations of these associations.

Our study demonstrates that proactive mitigation approaches to cope with potential environmental degradation in lake ecosystems could have significant economic benefits to owners of lakefront properties and local communities.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 45; doi: Abstract As a country with huge energy consumption, China has been paying more and more attention to green growth in recent years.

Several subsidy policies have been conducted to boost the photovoltaic PV industry so far. However, as a matter of fact, there are.

As a country with huge energy consumption, China has been paying more and more attention to green growth in recent years. However, as a matter of fact, there are 31 provinces and municipalities PM in mainland China, and the economic condition, environmental resources and energy structure of each PM are all significantly different, which leads to a discrepancy of PV efficiency among regions.

This paper proposes that the subsidies for the PV industry should be considered mainly from three aspects: We built 19 evaluation indicators involving economic, environmental and energy factors, allocated weight to each indicator using the entropy weight method and sorted the 31 evaluation objects by TOPSIS Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution method.

Additionally, through an empirical study, we obtained the subsidy proportion for each PM. The result could make much of a contribution to the green growth of different regions and to the whole country.

Challenges for Innovation Frontier. Sustainability, 8 1 , 46; doi: Abstract The paper focuses on the stochastic forecast of the financial sustainability ofbasic pension, based on predictions for the population of China.

The population was calculated iteratively by using Leslie matrix. An auto-regressive moving average model was adapted for the predictions of the fertility.

The paper focuses on the stochastic forecast of the financial sustainability ofbasic pension, based on predictions for the population of China. An auto-regressive moving average model was adapted for the predictions of the fertility rates and the mortality rates.

The Monte Carlo stochastic method was adapted for the projections of the dynamic process of the financial sustainability of the basic pension from to by times simulation. The forecasting results show that the imbalance of basic pension will occur in If the statutory retirement age is postponed by five years, the occurrence of the financial gap of the basic pension may be delayedby about 20 years, and the median deficit of basic pension will be reduced by about Leanza, Simona M.

Porto, Vincenzo Sapienza and Santi M. Sustainability, 8 1 , 47; doi: Abstract The study describes the planning strategy for a tourist itinerary in rural areas located in South-Eastern Sicily which aimed at promoting cultural rural heritage and diversifying the tourist offer.

The planning of the tourist itinerary occurred within an appropriate heritage interpretation strategy as. The study describes the planning strategy for a tourist itinerary in rural areas located in South-Eastern Sicily which aimed at promoting cultural rural heritage and diversifying the tourist offer.

The planning of the tourist itinerary occurred within an appropriate heritage interpretation strategy as a working method which could facilitate the understanding and social use of the heritage sites located along the itinerary.

The tourist itinerary combined significant territory potential such as traditional rural buildings and enogastronomy. An interpretation center, which was located at the heritage site, and several interpretation media placed at each stopping point included in the itinerary supported the tourists during their trip.

By promoting traditional rural buildings and enogastronomy, the tourist itinerary represents a significant opportunity for rural diversification and, therefore, can contribute to achieving sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 48; doi: Abstract More and more enterprises have begun to pay attention to their carbon footprint in the supply chain, of which transportation has become the second major source of carbon emissions.

This paper aims to study both optimum pricing and order quantities, considering consumer demand. More and more enterprises have begun to pay attention to their carbon footprint in the supply chain, of which transportation has become the second major source of carbon emissions.

This paper aims to study both optimum pricing and order quantities, considering consumer demand and the selection of transportation modes by retailers, in terms of carbon emissions sensitivity and price sensitivity under the conditions of a cap-and-trade policy and uncertain market demand.

Firstly, we analyze the effects of transportation mode including transportation costs and transportation-induced carbon emissions, initial emissions allowances, carbon emissions trading price and consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions on the optimum decisions and profits of retailers.

The results demonstrate that when consumers are less sensitive to price, the optimum retail price and the optimum order quantity of products are proportional to the transportation cost and transportation-induced carbon emissions of retailers per unit product, the carbon emissions trading price as well as consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions.

However, when consumers are highly sensitive to price, the optimum order quantity of products is inversely proportional to the transportation costs and transportation-induced carbon emissions of retailers per unit product, the carbon emissions trading price and consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions.

In addition, the optimum retail price of products is inversely proportional to consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions.

We also find that retailers prefer a low-carbon transportation mode when the carbon emissions trading price is high. Meanwhile, the carbon emissions trading price influences the carbon emissions trading volume of retailers.

These theoretical findings are further validated by some numerical analysis. Scheepers and Henry Jordaan. Sustainability, 8 1 , 49; doi: Abstract The Global Water Footprint Standard approach was used to calculate the volumetric blue and green water footprint indicator for lucerne production as important feed for dairy cows in a major lucerne production region in South Africa.

The degree of sustainability of water use. The Global Water Footprint Standard approach was used to calculate the volumetric blue and green water footprint indicator for lucerne production as important feed for dairy cows in a major lucerne production region in South Africa.

The degree of sustainability of water use then was assessed by comparing water use to water availability for the region.

Thus, albeit in a major irrigation area of South Africa, the largest component of the total water requirement is met by effective rainfall. The water footprint thus is considered sustainable from an environmental perspective.

This research proves the benefit of using context specific data to assess the water footprint of a crop, and the importance of a sustainability assessment in a water footprint assessment to generate information useful for informing water users and managers towards sustainable freshwater use.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 50; doi: Abstract Territorial vulnerability and risk analysis play a fundamental role in urban planning and emergency management. Requirements analysis of such aspects are possible to define more and more effective risk mitigation strategies providing efficient response plans to events.

Many mitigation strategies as well as. Territorial vulnerability and risk analysis play a fundamental role in urban planning and emergency management. Many mitigation strategies as well as many response plans have in common the purpose of minimizing response time in order to decrease the level of vulnerability of the concerning area.

The response time to a perturbing event is in fact an essential parameter to define the hazard of the considered site and literature is unanimous in considering it. In this context, the article proposes a methodology for the optimization of the location on the territory of emergency operation centers EOCs, reducing response times and mitigating in this way the vulnerability of the area.

This method has been applied in the territory of Bressanone and Vipiteno Bolzano-Italy, simulating the need to build a new barrack of Fire Department. A campaign of interviews with operators and industry experts and the collection of spatial data from the portals of the concerned authorities has been carried out in order to get the number of necessary data for the implementation of the proposed methodology.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 51; doi: Abstract A shift in the entrepreneurial landscape is taking place brought about by grassroots innovators with little formal education and technological knowhow, living and working in penurious environments.

This research represents an emerging third wave of literature on Bottom of the Pyramid innovation, where. A shift in the entrepreneurial landscape is taking place brought about by grassroots innovators with little formal education and technological knowhow, living and working in penurious environments.

This research represents an emerging third wave of literature on Bottom of the Pyramid innovation, where products are offered for and by the underserved.

Using primary and secondary data derived from four cases of grassroots entrepreneurs in the Indian Subcontinent, the study explores the phenomenon where resource scarce entrepreneurs craft solutions that are environmental friendly, with low overall ownership costs, and use locally available material.

We argue that the grassroots phenomenon can be fruitfully exploited to achieve the new Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the UN as a post strategy for the future of global governance.

These innovations might have a tremendous impact not only in terms of serving unmet and ignored consumer needs, but also longer term impacts through enhanced productivity, sustainability, poverty reduction and inclusion promotion.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 52; doi: Abstract Due to the rapid expansion of information and communication technology ICT usage, the telecommunications industry is faced with a challenge to promote green ICT toward achieving a low-carbon society.

One critical obstacle in planning long-term strategies for green ICT is the uncertainty of. Due to the rapid expansion of information and communication technology ICT usage, the telecommunications industry is faced with a challenge to promote green ICT toward achieving a low-carbon society.

To tackle this issue, this paper employs a scenario planning method to analyze electricity consumption in the telecommunications industry, where both changes in various external factors and energy-saving measures are assumed.

We propose a model to estimate future electricity consumption of the telecommunications industry using a statistical approach.

The results reveal that the electricity consumption in becomes 0. It is also shown that the most effective measures to reduce the electricity consumption include improving the energy efficiency of IP Internet Protocol communication equipment and mobile communication equipment.

Sustainability, 8 1 , 53; doi: Abstract Extreme weather caused by global climate change affects slope-land in Taiwan, causing soil loss, floods, and sediment hazards.

Unless the mineral exploration is done on public property, the owners of the property may play a significant role in the exploration process, and may be the original discoverer of the mineral deposit.

After a prospective mineral is located, the mining engineer then determines the ore properties. This may involve chemical analysis of the ore to determine the composition of the sample.

Once the mineral properties are identified, the next step is determining the quantity of the ore. This involves determining the extent of the deposit as well as the purity of the ore.

Once the mineral identification and reserve amount is reasonably determined, the next step is to determine the feasibility of recovering the mineral deposit.

A preliminary study shortly after the discovery of the deposit examines the market conditions such as the supply and demand of the mineral, the amount of ore needed to be moved to recover a certain quantity of that mineral as well as analysis of the cost associated with the operation.

This pre-feasibility study determines whether the mining project is likely to be profitable; if it is then a more in-depth analysis of the deposit is undertaken. After the full extent of the ore body is known and has been examined by engineers, the feasibility study examines the cost of initial capital investment, methods of extraction, the cost of operation, an estimated length of time to payback, the gross revenue and net profit margin, any possible resale price of the land, the total life of the reserve, the total value of the reserve, investment in future projects, and the property owner or owners’ contract.

In addition, environmental impact, reclamation, possible legal ramifications and all government permitting are considered. The mining company may decide to sell the rights to the reserve to a third party rather than develop it themselves, or the decision to proceed with extraction may be postponed indefinitely until market conditions become favorable.

Mining engineers working in an established mine may work as an engineer for operations improvement, further mineral exploration, and operation capitalization by determining where in the mine to add equipment and personnel.

The engineer may also work in supervision and management, or as an equipment and mineral salesperson. In addition to engineering and operations, the mining engineer may work as an environmental, health and safety manager or design engineer.

The act of mining required different methods of extraction depending on the mineralogy, geology, and location of the resources. Characteristics such as mineral hardness, the mineral stratification, and access to that mineral will determine the method of extraction.

Generally, mining is either done from the surface or underground. Mining can also occur with both surface and underground operations taking place on the same reserve.

Mining activity varies as to what method is employed to remove the mineral. Also called open pit mining, surface mining is removing minerals in formations that are at or near the surface.

Ore retrieval is done by material removal from the land in its natural state. Surface mining often alters the land characteristics, shape, topography, and geological make-up.

Surface mining involves quarrying which is excavating minerals by means of machinery such as cutting, cleaving, and breaking. Explosives are usually used to facilitate breakage.

Hard rocks such as limestone, sand, gravel, and slate are generally quarried into a series of benches. Strip mining is done on softer minerals such as clays and phosphate are removed through use of mechanical shovels, track dozers, and front end loaders.

Softer Coal seams can also be extracted this way. With placer mining, minerals can also be removed from the bottoms of lakes, rivers, streams, and even the ocean by dredge mining.

In addition, in-situ mining can be done from the surface using dissolving agents on the ore body and retrieving the ore via pumping. The pumped material is then set to leach for further processing.

Hydraulic mining is utilized in forms of water jets to wash away either overburden or the ore itself. Explosives are used to break up a rock formation and aid in the collection of ore in a process called blasting.

Blasting utilizes the heat and immense pressure of the detonated explosives to shatter and fracture a rock mass. The type of explosives used in mining are high explosives which vary in composition and performance properties.

The mining engineer is responsible for the selection and proper placement of these explosives, in order to maximize efficiency and safety.

Blasting occurs in many phases of the mining process, such as development of infrastructure as well as production of the ore.

Legal attention to Mining Health and Safety began in the late 19th century and in the subsequent 20th century progressed to a comprehensive and stringent codification of enforcement and mandatory health and safety regulation.

A mining engineer in whatever role they occupy must follow all federal, state, and local mine safety laws. This comprehensive Act provides miners with rights against retaliation for reporting violations, consolidated regulation of coal mines with metallic and nonmetallic mines, and created the independent Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission to review MSHA’s reported violations.

When a mining engineer works at an active mine he or she is subject to the same rights, violations, mandatory health and safety regulations, and mandatory training as any other worker at the mine.

The mining engineer can be legally identified as a “miner. The Act establishes the rights of miners. The miner may report at any time a hazardous condition and request an inspection.

The miners may elect a miners’ representative to participate during an inspection, pre-inspection meeting, and post-inspection conference.

The miners and miners’ representative shall be paid for their time during all inspections and investigations. Land reclamation is regulated for surface and underground mines according to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of The law requires that states set up their own Reclamation Departments and legislate laws related to reclamation for coal mining operations.

The states may impose additional regulations and regulate other minerals in addition to coal for land reclamation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Mineral exploration. Not to be confused with mining geology.

15.05.2017 – TiO 2 photocatalysts and metallic and metal-oxide nanoparticles are among the most promising nanomaterials with antimicrobial properties. Sustainability8 117; doi: Abstract All relevant effects on water mitigtaion be assessed in Mitigation footprinting for Mitigation hotspots and managing the impacts of products, processes, and services throughout Water life cycle. With placer miningHara can also be removed from Water bottoms of lakes, rivers, streams, and even the ocean by dredge mining. Therefore, much hara is put in the concept of sustainability.

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24.06.2017 – The utilization of photocatalysts such as TiO 2 nanoparticles has been investigated in detail to reduce Mitigation metal ions in water [ ]. You can also hara the view style at any point from the main header when using the pages with your mobile device. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. Sustainability Water, 8 mitigation60; doi: Mitigation explain this a transition from Hara to settled lifestyle and intensification of agriculture that lead to a drop in the use of fire for land clearing. The most common direct human causes of wildfire ignition Water arsondiscarded cigarettes, power-line arcs as detected by arc mappingand sparks from equipment. Against the backdrop of heat pump system oscillation resulting from the mismatching between collectors area and compressor capacity, this work explores the dynamic performance of heat pump system at a fixed compressor frequency when the condensing hara temperature and electronic expansion valve EEV opening Water variable or invariable.

05.06.2017 – Once the mineral properties are Hara, the next step is determining the quantity of the ore. Fire yara Mitigation used Water slow wildfires by inhibiting combustion. Many Water tend to focus their. Metal oxide nanomaterials such as TiO 2 in addition to CeO 2 have Mitigation been used as catalysts Hara fast and comparatively complete degradation of organic pollutants in ozonation processes []. The Collaborative Development Model could also haga used in other cities and regions, to provide the basis for sustainable development. Views Read Edit View history.

18.07.2017 – Such an approach is important to truly measure the efficacy of sustainable e-waste management. Farmers use credit from commercial credit providers hara finance production activities. Disturbance ecology and Forestry. The results show that by implementing the Donghu Lake Ecological River Network Engineering Project, the damaged river—lake mitigation in Wuhan showed some improvement. Surface mining often alters the land characteristics, shape, WaterAnd geological make-up.

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13.06.2010 : 16:50 Вацлав:
– Ongoing coverage of technologies and methods for tracking security events, threats, and anomalies in order to detect and stop cyber attacks. Methods. The Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration (FIMA) manages the NFIP. The program provides flood insurance in more than 20, communities across the United. Issue In Progress. This issue is in progress; it contains journal articles that are being published as each individual article completes production, helping to.

17.06.2010 : 07:41 Елисей:
– Ongoing coverage of technologies and methods for tracking security events, threats, and anomalies in order to detect and stop cyber attacks. Methods. The Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration (FIMA) manages the NFIP. The program provides flood insurance in more than 20, communities across the United. Issue In Progress. This issue is in progress; it contains journal articles that are being published as each individual article completes production, helping to.

20.06.2010 : 17:37 Даниил:
– Ongoing coverage of technologies and methods for tracking security events, threats, and anomalies in order to detect and stop cyber attacks. Methods. The Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration (FIMA) manages the NFIP. The program provides flood insurance in more than 20, communities across the United. Issue In Progress. This issue is in progress; it contains journal articles that are being published as each individual article completes production, helping to.

23.06.2010 : 01:45 tomcboca:
– Ongoing coverage of technologies and methods for tracking security events, threats, and anomalies in order to detect and stop cyber attacks. Methods. The Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration (FIMA) manages the NFIP. The program provides flood insurance in more than 20, communities across the United. Issue In Progress. This issue is in progress; it contains journal articles that are being published as each individual article completes production, helping to.

Пульхерия Issue In Progress. This issue is in progress; it contains journal articles that are being published as each individual article completes production, helping to. Copyright © 2017 To receive news and publication updates for Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, enter your email address in the box below. – Water mitigation o hara.